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Charge And Discharge Design of Low Temperature Battery

low temp intelligence cell

Many battery users do not know that consumer-grade lithium-ion batteries cannot be charged below 0 °C. Although the battery pack appears to be charging normally, metallic lithium plating may occur on the anode during low-temperature charging. This plating is permanent and will not be eliminated with the charge cycle. Lead-acid batteries also have the risk of freezing the electrolyte, which can cause the shell to rupture.

Safety hazards in batteries at low temperatures

In the face of the safety hazards of batteries at low temperatures, what problems should you pay attention to when designing engineers? Fast charging of most batteries is limited to between 5 ° C and 45 ° C. For best charging results, consider reducing the temperature range to between 10 ° C and 30 ° C because of oxygen and hydrogen-like nickel-based batteries. Recombination ability will be reduced.

If the battery is charging too fast, the pressure in the battery will increase, causing a discharge. When the charging temperature is lower than 0 ° C, it is very important to reduce the charging current of all nickel-based batteries to 0.1 C. (“C” definition: If the battery capacity is 1000mAh, “C” is defined as discharging 1000mA in 1 hour. For more information, please click: High-rate battery.)

Nickel-based charger with a negative voltage (NDV) full-charge detection provides some protection when charging at low temperatures: When the low temperature simulates a fully charged battery, the charging acceptance rate is poor. This is partly due to the accumulation of high pressure due to a decrease in gas recombination ability at low temperatures. The increase in pressure and voltage drop at full charge appear to be accompanied.

Novel battery

In order to be able to charge quickly at all temperatures, some industrial batteries add a thermal blanket to heat the battery to the right temperature; the smart charger automatically adjusts the charging rate to the current temperature. Consumer electronics chargers do not have these features and end-users can only charge at room temperature.

Performance of different types of batteries at low temperatures

Lead-acid batteries

When it comes to extreme temperatures, lead-acid batteries are quite tolerant, as the battery batteries in our cars show. The recommended low-temperature charging rate is 0.3C, which is almost the same as normal. At a comfortable temperature of 20 ° C, the charging voltage at the start of charging is 2.41 V cells. At -20 ° C, the inflation threshold rose to 2.97V battery.
Frozen lead-acid batteries can cause permanent damage. Always keep the battery fully charged, because, in the discharged state, the electrolyte becomes more like water, which is more likely to freeze than when it is fully charged. Leached lead-acid batteries tend to rupture, causing leaks if frozen; sealed lead-acid packages lose their effectiveness, and can only be supplied several times before the failure, and need to be replaced.

Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries provide excellent charging performance at cooler temperatures and can be quickly charged over a temperature range of 5 ° C to 45 ° C. Below 5 ° C, the charging current should be reduced, and charging is not allowed at the freezing temperature. During charging, the internal cell resistance causes a slight temperature rise to compensate for some cold. The internal resistance of all batteries becomes higher in the cold.

Many battery users do not know that consumer-grade lithium-ion batteries cannot be charged below 0 °C. Although the battery pack appears to be charging normally, metallic lithium plating may occur on the anode during low-temperature charging. This plating is permanent and will not be eliminated with the charge cycle. Lithium battery cells are more prone to failure if exposed to vibration or other stress conditions. Advanced chargers prevent lithium-ion batteries from charging below freezing temperatures.

Progress is being made to charge lithium-ion batteries below freezing temperatures. For most lithium-ion batteries, charging is indeed possible, but at very low currents.

According to the study, the allowable charging rate in the -30 ° C environment was 0.02 C. For example, a 2500mAh battery needs to be charged at 50mA at -30 °C. At such a low current, the charging time needs to be extended to more than 50 hours, which seems impractical, but in the oil and gas field in northern China. Keeping the Li-Ion battery pack ready and fully charged to control the pressure and other parameters in the pipe seems to work. Usually, these battery packs are used as backup power supplies.

cold weather

The performance of all batteries at low temperatures drops dramatically; however, due to the increase in internal DC resistance during use, the resulting loss of efficiency can cause some warming effects. At -20 ° C, most batteries stopped working. Although the operating temperature of the nickel-cadmium battery can be reduced to minus 40 ° C, the allowable discharge is only 0.2 C. Lithium-ion batteries can operate at temperatures of -40 ° C, but can only operate at lower discharge rates. Charging at this temperature is not possible. With lead-acid batteries, there is a risk of electrolyte freezing, which can cause the casing to rupture. When fully charged, the lead-acid is more like water, and it freezes quickly when there is only a small amount of electricity.

Matching cells with the same capacity play an important role in discharging at low temperatures and heavy loads. Since the battery in the battery pack can never be perfectly matched, if the discharge is allowed to continue beyond the safe low battery cut-off point, a negative voltage potential may appear on the weaker battery in the multiple battery packs. This is called a battery core reversal, and a weak battery can become a permanent low point. The larger the number of cells, the greater the possibility of reversing the cell under load. Over-discharge at low temperatures and high loads is the main cause of battery-powered equipment failure.

If charged and discharged at a temperature significantly lower than -10 ° C, the battery capacity may also decrease, which coincides with lithium plating during charging. At these low temperatures, the extractable energy is also greatly reduced.

How to overcome the low-temperature restriction

So how do we solve the various problems mentioned above? The low-temperature battery developed by Grepow has broken through these technical limitations and can be used normally in low-temperature environments. Grepow low temperature shaped battery operating environment in the low-temperature range -40℃ to 50℃. Compared with traditional Li-Polymer batteries, it has broken through the discharge temperature limits of -20℃ to 60℃.

Low Temperature Shaped Battery

The low-temperature battery is a kind of special battery specially developed by Grepow, to overcome low-temperature defects inherent in the performance of chemical power supply. Grepow low temperature shaped battery adopts innovative design concept, advanced formulation system and materials, rigorous process manufacturing process and method, and overcomes many technical bottlenecks to develop low-temperature lithium battery series.

If you are interested in our products, please don’t hesitate to contact us at any time!
Grepow Website:

How to Choose Batteries for Medical Devices?


Modern switching mode power supplies are used in a variety of medical devices, including MRI, X-ray, CT and PET scanners, blood analyzers, DNA equipment, patient monitors, ultrasounds, robotic surgical equipment, cardiopulmonary machines, diagnostic equipment, and automated pharmaceutical dispensers, to name a few. As with all electronics, the trend in medical devices is to make them smaller, lighter, more efficient, more reliable and more competitively priced. Safety standards for medical equipment depending on the application, proximity to patients and operators, and the location and environment of the equipment.

In the design of medical electronic devices, one consideration takes precedence over all others: the safety of the patient and the operator. In some cases, it may be tempting to think that a power source that has been designed and certified for industrial use might also be suitable for medical battery. Often this is not the case, as the risks involved vary greatly.

In addition, many electronic devices used in hospitals (such as patient monitors) operate with very low levels of signals. Medical devices like these tend to be more sensitive to electromagnetic interference (EMI) than most devices used in industry, making EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) compliance and performance a key issue in medical applications.

Protect patients and operators

Hospital patients are often in a vulnerable state. Exposure to even small leakage currents can have adverse effects on their health. The same small leakage current has little effect on healthy people and may be acceptable in industrial applications. Depending on the application, the “permissible leakage current” of the resulting medical device (not just the power source) can range from A few microns (microamps) to A few hundred.”Leakage current” can be defined as an unexpected and potentially harmful current that can pass through the body. Obviously, medical devices that have direct physical contact with patients must limit their leakage current to a specified minimum level.

patients and medical staff

Medical power safety standard

Medical requirements differ from standard power supplies. For example, the enhanced or double insulation in a 240Vac power supply must be able to withstand a dielectric test of 4kVac for medical applications, while the corresponding figure for ITE/industrial USES is only 3kVac.As with spacing, this difference must be taken into account when selecting a power supply. A power supply approved below 4kVac May be used as part of an enhanced barrier for medical applications provided that insulation within the power supply is considered to be a smaller “basic” or “supplementary” barrier. In this case, additional isolation must be provided within the terminal product medical device through the device. The manufacturer shall meet the requirements of strengthening the barrier between the ac power supply and the patient.

Tips for selecting a medical battery

Modern medical devices require compact, lightweight, efficient, economical, RoHS compliant, reliable and ultra-safe power sources. Switching mode power supplies can meet all these requirements, but not all power supplies are the same. Medical equipment OEMs should pay attention to selecting power sources from reputable suppliers, preferably with mature experience in the medical electronics field and a full understanding of the special requirements and changing standards of the professional industry.

Obviously, it is foolish to choose a medical battery based on the lowest price, because the high cost of potential legal action, product recalls, brand name damage and warranty repairs far outweigh any potential cost savings on the front end. Medical OEMs should also take care to ensure that their selected power sources are fully compliant and certified to the current version of IEC, EN, UL, and CSA medical safety standards. Taking these precautions will make it easier for new medical devices to be certified by responsible safety agencies and the FDA.

Customized batteries for medical devices

Lithium batteries have the advantages of high energy density, small size, lightweight, long life, good battery capacity maintenance, wide operating temperature range, and other advantages, to meet the requirements of portable medical equipment lightweight, mobility.

As the world’s leading designer and manufacturer of the custom batteries for more than 20 years. Grepow Battery continually devotes our resources and efforts to developing higher performing & critically reliable rechargeable batteries for medical devices. Lithium batteries for medical devices produced by Grepow have complete safety protection circuit, equalization circuit and battery management unit (BMU), and the combination of multiple serial lithium batteries is strict with high consistency. The product has been tested under different temperature, current, shelf life and other conditions, including various abuse tests, to ensure the safety performance of the battery.

Medical instrument lithium battery pack is widely used in the B ultrasound machine, ECG monitor, infusion pump, ventilator, anesthesia machine, light curing machine, physical therapy, rehabilitation instrument and so on.

Novel medical battery

Based on the advanced technology, stringent quality control, and cost competitiveness, it is able to offer a wide range( -40 ℃~50 ℃ or 20 ℃~80 ℃) of quality batteries to meet customers’ ever-growing demands for higher performance, higher energy density, safer, lighter weight and 1000 cycles life. Custom shaped batteries to fit into any and all available space in your product for maximum efficiency.

Grepow has passed IS09001, ISO14001, TS16949, OHSAS18001 quality system certification, and our products can pass ROHS, CE, UL, UN38.3, MSDS, and other certification. If you need any product certifications, please let us know and we can help to apply for the certification for you.


So far, Grepow sales network covers all areas of China, most areas of Asia, Europe, America, Austria, and some areas of Africa. They also have established offices in Xinjiang, Germany, and the U.S.A. to provide better service to their customers for delivery efficiency and after-sales service.

If you are interested in our products, please don’t hesitate to contact us at any time!
Grepow Website:

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These T-shaped shirts are in their plain versions, but consumers may either upgrade them design or embellishments. Right now, lucrative many services online step by step . make these shirts more special by customizing it through screen printing, heat transfer or embroidery. Customers have complete control on the look within the shirt. These days, people can express their creativity and personality with custom polo shirts online.

Wearable Device Power Solution


Wearable technology engineers and designers face the same challenge all the time — how do you design a battery, which is often the largest single component of a wearable device, to keep it beautiful and functional? Batteries are heavy. They are clunky and unwieldy – but they are essential to keeping every technology going.

What is Wearable Power?

Unfortunately, when we jog, we can’t plug in the power, so battery power is an absolutely essential part of any wearable technology. Our smartphones need charging, our fitness trackers, our wearable cameras and camcorders. Without power, we can tie wearable gems to our legs and wrists. This is where wearable battery come in. The wearable battery is connected to the wearer’s clothing or straps and provide the same amount of energy as they do for other wearable technologies. They are small, light, unobtrusive, and carry enough power to power all your wearable devices.

In wearable devices, the battery is usually very small (for example, 100 mAh), and the device takes several days or even weeks without charging, so power consumption is a key design consideration. Therefore, high power conversion efficiency will be a key design element.

Stylish wrist-worn wearable devices need to be kept to a minimum size in order to maintain their cool features. This drives a high level of full device integration including batteries. In addition, wearable devices can employ a novel battery.

The Biggest Challenge For Wearable Tech

1. The battery intelligent management system should have almost all types of safety design, including overvoltage protection, overcurrent protection, overtemperature protection, short circuit protection, and low-temperature charging, even when the power solution size must be kept very small. is also like this.

Smart wearable devices

2. Because the wearable battery is small, the need for charging accuracy is increased, making charging these small batteries is not an easy task. The charger must be able to provide a smaller charge cut-off current. In other words, the accuracy of the charger should be higher, up to mA level. For example, in a smartphone system, the normal charging current of a 2,000 mAh battery is 1.2 A (0.6 C), and the charging cut-off current should be 1/10 to 1/20 of the normal charging current, that is, 120 mA to 60 mA.
However, in the bracelet, since the battery capacity may be 100 mAh, the normal charging current will be 60 mA, and the charging cut-off current should be 6 mA to 3 mA. Charger devices that meet this requirement are difficult to find.

3. Wearable devices should have a long battery life. Often, consumers are not happy if they charge their devices every day. In the current situation where many of the best smartphones have to be recharged in a day or two, end users are clearly looking forward to improvements. The entire power management should be able to provide a highly efficient power supply.

4. In wearable devices, the failure point of many products is the charging/signal connector because of the relationship between humidity and corrosion.

Wearable Power Products

In response to these design challenges, Grepow batteries have taken corresponding measures to gradually solve the battery runtime requirements based on their cutting-edge battery production technology. We need to use a novel battery while using a wearable device. The novel battery power density is increased in that it takes longer to convert to available power.

Novel battery

With the great success of wearable applications such as smart shoes and Bluetooth headsets, small batteries have become the decisive choice for wearable devices. Wearable devices can be used in any area, and some battery designs are limited to size or special shape requirements. Grepow wearable battery has a small size, irregular shape, wide application temperature range (-40 ° C ~ 50 ° C or -20 ° C ~ 60 ° C), etc., is a customer custom power solutions, is also a development trend.

If you are interested in our products, please don’t hesitate to contact us at any time!
Grepow Website:

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Choisissez un accompagnement approprié pour faire de votre Golden Goose Sale repas un excellent exercice ou faire de vos efforts une pièce de théâtre d ‚un autre soir, en essayant de faire manger à leur famille.Essayer de nouvelles méthodes de cuisson peut inciter toutes vos familles à les essayer sans avoir besoin de vos paroles.

How to Increase Bluetooth Headset Battery Life?

bluetooth headset

I believe that many drivers and friends have such troubles, it is not convenient to answer the phone when driving. The advent of the Bluetooth headset has solved this problem very well. Let us avoid the annoying wires and easily talk in a variety of ways.

So how to charge the Bluetooth headset? Speaking of this problem, maybe a friend is thinking, isn’t it simple enough to charge a Bluetooth headset? Plug the plug directly and turn the power on. In fact, Bluetooth headset charging is still very skillful, the correct charging method can maintain the life of Bluetooth. Next, I will introduce the Bluetooth headset charging method for everyone.

Bluetooth headset charging process

Choose the right charger. General Bluetooth headsets have dedicated chargers. If you don’t have a dedicated charger, you can find the charging interface (some are small round holes, some are MiniUSB universal interfaces), and the charger with the same rated output power.


When charging, insert all the plugs in. Don’t just insert more than one half, which will damage the machine for a long time. When plugging or unplugging the charging plug, it should be lighter, otherwise, the plug will be loose if the time is long.

If you plug the Bluetooth headset into the dock or the charging box to charge, it will take longer to charge than when you charge directly to the Bluetooth headset. The charging method is the same as charging the earphone directly, and inserting the charging wire into the hole of the base can be inserted.

When the battery is charged, the red indicator lights up, indicating that it is charging. If the charging is completed, the indicator light will turn blue and the charger can be removed.

When charging the Bluetooth headset, try not to use the headset again to avoid accidental damage.

Bluetooth headset charging time

The Bluetooth headset battery is not fully charged when it leaves the factory. In order to fully activate the battery, charge the first three times for 6-8 hours. It will be 2-3 hours after each charge. When charging, it is usually a bright red indicator light. If the light is off, the power is already full (the individual headphones are full of blue or green light, the manual will indicate).

bluetooth headset battery

In order to achieve the longest battery life, it is necessary to master the correct method of charging the Bluetooth headset, that is, charging only when the battery is low.

Life of Bluetooth headset

The normal life of a Bluetooth headset is generally related to its battery life. The number of times the battery is charged is about 500 times. That is, the normal service life is about 2 years. The battery of the general Bluetooth headset can talk for 8-10 hours continuously, listen to music for 6-8 hours, and can stand for 15-30 days. The life of the Bluetooth headset battery is mainly related to the quality of the battery. The quality of the wireless Bluetooth headset battery can be used for 2-3 years.

Bluetooth headset charging time

The charging time of a single ear Bluetooth headset is generally not more than 3 hours. This is the best charging time. It is better not to exceed 4 hours for the Bluetooth headset of both ears. Everyone knows that the lithium battery inside the Bluetooth headset is small in size, and the charging time is useless. It is not like our mobile phone battery, it can extend the charging time. A better and more accurate explanation should be said, as long as the charging indicator of the Bluetooth headset does not flash, indicating that the charging is full, then we do not need to recharge, you can unplug the power.

Bluetooth headset is also an electronic product, built-in battery, battery charging has a long life, the general battery charging cycle is 300 to 500 times, the more the number of charging, the battery’s ability to continue to charge is smaller, this is the characteristics of the battery, Therefore, the endurance ability will be worse and worse, and some low-end Bluetooth headsets are used with very poor batteries, and the actual number of cycles is less than 100 times.

Bluetooth headset battery

Customized Bluetooth Headset Battery with Long Life

Most batteries for Bluetooth headset are a rectangular shape, which capacity is 200 to 500mAh range, but they do not make use of the entire space of the headphones they power, because most headphones are the round batteries or oval shape batteries.

The customized shaped batteries created by Grepow can better fit into the remaining spaces of the headphones, and provide maximum capacity. Furthermore, Grepow provides solutions for high discharge rates and high voltage cells. Customers need only focus on the design of their product, Grepow will provide the maximum capacity solution.

If you are interested in our products, please don’t hesitate to contact us at any time!
Grepow Website:

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