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Different precursors are needed for the Neoantigen peptides

Neurotransmitters can be excitatory or Peptide synthesis but their major action is activation of one or more receptors. The effect of these chemicals on the post-synaptic side of the cell is totally dependent upon the properties of the receptors. The receptors for most of the neurotransmitters are excitatory as they activate the target cell so that action potential can be produced. On the other hand, for GABA, most of the receptors are inhibitory. However, evidences have shown that GABA acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter during early brain development. For acetylcholine the receptors are both excitatory and inhibitory. The effect of a neurotransmitter system is directly dependent upon the connections of neurons and chemical properties of the receptors. Major neurotransmitter systems are the norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and cholinergic systems. Drugs targeting these neurotransmitter systems affect the whole system thus, explaining the complexity of drug action. AMPT prevents the conversion of tyrosine into L-DOPA which forms dopamine. Reserpine prevents accumulation of dopamine in the vesicles. Deprenyl inhibits the activity of monoamine oxidase-B and thus, increases dopamine levels.

 

Precursors of Neurotransmitters

Different precursors are needed for the Neoantigen peptides of different neurotransmitters. For example, L-DOPA is the precursor for dopamine synthesis that crosses the blood brain barrier and is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. In case of depressed patients the activity of norepinephrine is lowered, so the precursors for this neurotransmitter are administered externally. The precursors for this neurotransmitter are L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. These precursors also participate in the synthesis of dopamine and epinephrine. The synthesis of these neurotransmitters also requires vitamin B6, vitamin C and S-adenosylmethionine. L-tryptophan is the precursor for serotonin synthesis and studies have indicated that its administration results in increased production of serotonin in the brain. The conversion of L-tryptophan requires vitamin C. 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) also acts as a precursor for serotonin.

Degradation and Elimination

Argireline Acetate must be broken down into small molecules before they reach the post-synaptic neuron in order to participate in excitatory or inhibitory signal transduction. For example, acetylcholine (ACh) is an excitatory neurotransmitter which is broken down by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Choline is recycled by the pre-synaptic neuron to form acetylcholine again. Other neurotransmitters like dopamine are able to diffuse away from their synaptic junctions and are eliminated from the body via kidneys or destroyed in the liver. Each neurotransmitter has a specific degradation pathway.

 

 

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