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A Quick Discovery to Proteome through Subcellular Proteomics and MS

The subcellular proteomics handles all the proteins contained in subcellular structures, such as subcellular compartments, specific protein components, and organelles. Intracellular components are divided into different organelles or cell regions according to their spatial structure, distribution and function, such as cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and Golgi apparatus, etc. Some functional units in organelles are mostly macromolecular structures or protein complexes, such as nuclear matrix, spliceosome, spindle, nuclear pore structure, and ribosome. Subcellular Proteomics studies of these structures can facilitate the researches of the whole cell proteome.

The structure of tissues and cells that constitute organisms is complex, and the protein composition in them is diverse, with various properties, and large differences in abundance. Compared to conventional methods that cannot separate all the proteins in tissues and cells, and proteomics technology that loses a lot of protein signal, subcellular proteomics decreases the complexity of proteome discovery. Therefore, the combination of subcellular proteomics has far-reaching significance in the research of cell biology and molecular biology.

The significance of subcellular proteomics studies

  1. Enrich low-abundance proteins to improve the whole cell proteome

Due to the wide variety of proteins expressed by whole cells, direct proteomics analysis of whole cells will be limited by the amount of sample, the huge difference in intracellular protein copy number and the proteomics technology itself, making it difficult to isolate and identify all proteins, especially low-abundance proteins. However, various proteins have a certain spatial distribution in cells, and various subcellular components have their own characteristic protein composition. Therefore, the separation of subcellular components can reduce the types of proteins and enrich low-abundance proteins. It is expected to isolate and identify more new proteins and new genes in order to understand the functions of these low-abundance proteins.

  1. Deepen the understanding of the structure and function of subcellular components

The understanding of the composition of all proteins of a specific subcellular component is very helpful for specific research on the structural functional unit.

  1. Differ expression profiles of subcellular proteins

Under pathological conditions, different subcellular components are affected to different degrees. Therefore, subcellular proteomics research will more sensitively reflect the quantitative changes, qualitative changes and protein migration of some proteins caused by pathological factors. For the pathological conditions of some particularly affected organelles, subcellular proteomics research is more meaningful.

“Based on the powerful combination of subcellular fractionation and protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, it enables us to develop the subcellular proteomics approach for the characterization of subcellular compartments.” Said by a Creative Proteomics Scientist.

Moreover, Creative Proteomics also provides related bioinformatics services in Subcellular Proteomics, for example, Functional annotation and enrichment analysis, Clustering analysis, Network analysis and Statistical analysis.

 

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