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Peptide Modifications: Linkers, Spacers and PEGylation

Biochempeg is a biotechnology-oriented company in Watertown, Massachusetts. It provides custom PEGylated conjugates and PEGylation services for peptides, and small molecules. PEGylation is the process of covalently attaching polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer chains to peptides. By increasing their molecular mass and shielding them from proteolytic enzymes, PEGylation improves the pharmacokinetics of peptides and proteins. PEGylation reduces renal clearance and results in more sustained absorption after subcutaneous administration, as well as restricted distribution. PEGylations have been shown to significantly improve water solubility, biocompatibility, immunogenicity, and other physico-chemical properties. It is an established method for the delivery of biopharmaceuticals.

The Glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide formed from glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine, is active in many biological redox reactions. The conjugation of glutathione to its PEGylated liposome can be transported through the blood brain barrier in vivo via a sodium-dependent transporter. The GSH PEGylated liposomes enhance delivery of a fluorescent marker in the brain.

Biochempeg will PEGylate your peptide, or small molecule, and deliver your PEGylated product with a certificate of analysis, as a regular end-product, for further testing at your site. As a global partner, we can supply commercial quantities of high quality functionalized PEGs, which are essential for your PEGylated therapeutic proteins.

Our PEGylation services include:

①Multiple choices: amine reactive PEG acid, carbonyl reactive aminooxy PEG, click chemistry alkyne PEG and PEG azide, DBCO PEG, lipid PEG in drug delivery DSPE PEG, thiol reactive PEG Maleimide

②PEGylation feasibility studies

③Pilot production and process development of PEG-drug conjugate

④Development of PEGylated biosimilars

Pharmacological advantages of peptide PEGylation:

Improved peptide solubility and enhanced protection from proteolytic degradation. The PEG polymer, along with its associated water molecules, acts like a shield to protect the attached peptide drug from enzyme degradation, thereby limiting adverse immunological effects. PEGylated peptides are more stable over a range of pH and temperature changes compared with their un-PEGylated counterparts.

②Reduced dosing frequency with potentially reduced toxicity. PEG exhibits little toxicity, and is eliminated intact from the body by either the kidneys (for PEGylated drugs <30 kDa) or in the feces (for PEGylated drugs >20 kDa).

③Increased peptide or drug stability and extended circulating life. PEG lacks immunogenicity, and antibodies against PEG in rabbits are generated only if it is combined with highly immunogenic proteins.

Biochempeg can attach the PEGs to peptides. Some examples are listed below:

①Monofunctional PEG Maleimide, Molecular Weight of 1K, 2K, 5K, 10K, 20K, or 30K

②Bifunctional Maleimide PEG Maleimide, Molecular Weight of 1K, 2K, 5K, 10K, 20K, or 30K

③DSPE-PEG-MAL, Maleimide functionalized PEG Lipid,Molecular Weight of 1K, 2K, or 5K

④Biotin PEG Maleimide, FITC, PEG Maleimide, Multi-arm-4/8 arm-PEG Maleimide

⑤Fmoc-ε-Ahx-OH, or N-ε-Fmoc-ε-aminocaproic acid; or Fmoc-6-aminohexanoic acid; CAS number: 88574-06-5; Molecular weight: 353.42 g/mol.

⑥Ahx or b-Ala can be used successfully as spacers during the generation of FITC-labeled peptides, which increases the stability of the fluorescent label. FITC can also be linked easily to a cysteine thiol moiety or to the amino group of lysine at any position.Synthesis using an Ahx linker in the lysine core resulted in better yields. Ahx increases the flexibility of peptide chains, which might help keep peptide chains properly solvated during synthesis, thereby preventing aggregation and increasing the amount of viable growing peptide sequences.

⑦{Mini-PEG}, 9 Carbons, CAS number: 166108-71-0; Fmoc-NH-(PEG)-COOH, or Fmoc-8-Amino-3,6-Dioxaoctanoic Acid; Molecular weight: 385.42 g/mol; C21H23NO6

⑧{Mini-PEG3}, Fmoc-AEEEA, CAS number: 139338-72-0; Fmoc-NH-(PEG)3-COOH, or Fmoc-11-Amino-3,6,9-Trioxaundecanoic Acid; Molecular weight: 429.47 g/mol; C23H27NO7

Biochempeg is dedicated to manufacturing and supplying high purity polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives and linkers, monodisperse PEG, ADC PEG linkers, Click Chemistry reagents, PEGylation services and custom PEG derivative synthesis to clients worldwide. These PEG linkers have been widely used in bioconjugation, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) therapeutic, drug delivery and diagnostics field.

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