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New natural compounds may improve human health and resist multiple diseases (part one)

[1] Cell: Analyzes the three-dimensional structure of the chemokine receptor CCR7 and identifies compounds that are expected to treat certain common cancers.

 

Doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.028

 

In a new study, researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, together with the pharmaceutical giant Roche have taken an important step in developing medicinal agents that block certain cancer metastases. Aided by Swiss Light Source, they made clear the structure of a receptor that plays a key role in cancer cell migration. This discovery allows identification of medicinal agents to block the spread of certain cancer cells, which go through the lymphatic system of our body.

 

When a cancer cell spreads in the body, a secondary tumor called a metastasis can be formed. These secondary tumors cause approximately 90% of cancer patients to die. An important way to spread cancer cells is through the lymphatic system, which runs through the body like a vascular system and connects the lymph nodes to each other. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) plays an important role as a specific membrane protein when leukocytes migrate through the lymphatic system to coordinate defense against pathogens. It is located in the cell membrane and receives external signals and transmits these signals to the interior of the cell. In collaboration with Roche, researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute were able to identify the structure of CCR7 for the first time, laying the groundwork for developing drugs that would prevent some common cancer metastasis.

 

[2] Nat Commun: Foods rich in flavonoids can protect the body against cancer and heart disease

 

Doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11622-x

 

Recently, a research report was published in Nature Communications. Scientists from the University of Idisco found that eating flavonoid-rich foods (such as apples and tea) can help the body effectively fight cancer and heart disease, especially for smokers and heavy drinkers.

 

In this study, the researchers evaluated the dietary status of 53,048 Danes over a 23-year period and found that people who habitually consume moderate or large amounts of flavonoid-rich foods may not be very likely to die from cancer or heart disease. According to Researcher Dr. Nicola Bondonno, people who consume foods rich in flavonoids have a lower risk of death. This effect is especially true for those who are at higher risk of chronic diseases due to smoking and drinking more than two standard alcoholic beverages a day.

 

[3] MedChemComm: Special compounds in plant white chrysanthemum are expected to effectively kill leukemia cells

 

Doi:10.1039/C9MD00297A

 

In a recent study published in the international journal MedChemComm, scientists from the University of Birmingham said through research a special compound in the commonly seen plant everfew may have potential anti-cancer properties. In the article, researchers extracted the compound from the white chrysanthemum and modified it to kill chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in the laboratory.

 

In addition, the researchers studied the compound called Parthenolide (PAR), which scientists have discovered many years ago. Although it is commercially available, this compound is very expensive and poorly medicinal, and research on this compound is only at the basic research stage. Researchers have devised a new method that not only directly extracts parthenolide, but also modifies it to produce a variety of compounds that kill cancer cells in vitro. The subsequent properties of these compounds make them potential drugs for later clinical trials.

 

[4]Science Supplement: The highly selective compound BMS-986165 is expected to treat a series of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases.

 

Doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw1736

 

Although recent advances in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases have provided important benefits for some patients, unmet medical needs still remain high, especially for these debilitating patients who need better efficacy and stronger remission. In addition, many therapies representing current treatment criteria have safety issues that either limit its long-term use (eg, glucocorticoids) or are associated with a significant decline in host defense, which can result in severe infections or increased risk of malignancy.

 

Tyrosine Kinase 2 (TYK2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates signal transduction downstream of interleukin-23 (IL-23), IL-12 and type I interferon (IFN) receptors. These cytokines/receptors activate the function of helper T-cell 17 (TH17), TH1 cells, B cells, and bone marrow cells, which are involved in autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), lupus nephritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, Crohn’s disease, psoriasis and systemic sclerosis.

 

[5] Nat Metabol: Human clinical trials have found that the compound urinaryin A in pomegranate does have an anti-aging effect!

 

Doi:10.1038/s42255-019-0073-4

 

Recently, in a research report published in Nature Metabolism, scientists from institutions such as the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, found that Urolithin A, a substance in pomegranate and other fruits, can improve the function of the cell mitochondria and help to slow down specific aging processes.

 

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