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|14.6.2017||Posted by Zdziarski under Nezařazené|
Industry experts used to massive email searches in large civil cases have been scathing about the idea that the FBI’s job is difficult with modern tools. Linda Sharp of ZL Technologies said: "In the scheme of e-discovery, 60,000 documents is nothing. We’re used to seeing documents in the tens of millions of documents, terabytes of data."Journalists have also become users of high-end e-discovery software to handle document dumps in recent high profile reports, such as the Panama Papers and Offshoreleaks investigations (Duncan worked as the data manager for the Offshoreleaks project of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists). In the Offshoreleaks investigation in 2013, two million emails were analysed and catalogued, and made available to international journalism teams on a secure server. To find all emails from a domain takes seconds, once the gruntwork of indexing is complete – which had previously been done for Weiner’s computer, to look for sexting evidence.
Standard WHOIS registry records show that the clintonemail.com domain was registered on 13 January 2009. She turned down the opportunity to use a standard state.gov address, and corresponded throughout her term of office as email@example.com.In 2009, Clinton appointed Huma Abedin as deputy chief of staff at the State Department. In 2010, Abedin married Weiner. They separated this past August. Abedin then became vice chairwoman of Hillary Clinton’s 2016 Presidential campaign. Apart from communicating with Clinton on her email, Abedin and another aide also had personal accounts on the Clinton server.The implication of the FBI’s October findings is that Abedin communicated with her husband from the clintonemail domain, or copied him some of her boss’s email, or even that he lifted and copied them in a domestic setting.Whichever happened, or all of them, finding those emails on Weiner’s laptop will have been forensically trivial, as all will contain the unique string "clintonemail." Google it and you get it, in seconds.Republicans have form for previously exploiting making fundamental forensic errors in reporting on email data in the Clinton investigation. In 2015, it was claimed that she had a second "secret" address on the server. In fact, it was a new address she used after being Secretary of State.
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Asked by The Reg if they agreed that as their own investigation into Clinton reported that there were 62,320 emails handled on the clintonemail.com domain during her term in office as Secretary of State, and that they had already checked 30,490 of those handed over by her lawyers as being official, 90 per cent must be irrelevant – an FBI spokesman refused comment.The Reg asked how long it had taken them to filter the emails to select only Clinton mails, and how many had actually been found. "No comment."Do the math. The FBI have already seen nearly half of the emails handled by the server. The balance of emails deemed private by Clinton’s lawyers is 32,740. Even if, implausibly, the entire contents of the Clinton server had been copied to Abedin, and then on to Weiner, it is obvious that 95 per cent of the Weiner emails could not be relevant. Commonly, two such troves contain many sets of multiple copies of the same emails, made automatically by backup and other processes.Oregon Senator Ron Wyden, a longstanding critic of FBI and NSA electronic mass surveillance, told The Reg that the FBI’s "continuing leadership failures" underscore the "need for independent oversight" on surveillance, and reflected a "pattern of poor judgment" by the FBI’s director.
The US media have been full of hyperbole about how no effort has been spared by the FBI in its efforts to break the butterfly on their wheel. They would "spare no resources," are working "round the clock" on "16-hour shifts," developing "new software" for the taxing task.In an internal FBI message reported by NBC, Comey is said to have told agents that it would "be misleading to the American people were we not to supplement the record. At the same time, however, given that we don’t know the significance of this newly discovered collection of emails, I don’t want to create a misleading impression", he added. Indeed. Fitbit is giving investors cause for concern after the wearables company posted a 43 per cent drop in profits, year on year.The fall comes despite seeing Q3 2016 revenues climb by 23 per cent to $504m and total unit sales were up by 11 per cent. The company noted the profit fall was based on a number of factors, including a 91 per cent increase in its R&D spending.
More concerning, however, were the company’s expectations for the holiday season. Fitbit estimates that its busiest sales period of the year will probably only see sales grow by about 2 to 5 per cent over the year-ago quarter.Investors gave the company a right kicking in after-hours trading, as Fitbit stock fell by 29 per cent to $9 per share, less than half of its 2015 IPO starting price. Black Hat EU Wi-Fi networks can tease IMSI numbers out of nearby smartphones, allowing pretty much anyone to wirelessly track and monitor people by their handsets‘ fingerprints.Typically, if you want to stalk and identify strangers via their IMSI numbers, you use a Stingray-like device, or any software-defined radio, that talks to handsets via cellular protocols. Your snooping gear masquerades as a legit mobile phone mast, which mobile handsets try to connect to when nearby.During this process, the handhelds cough up their IMSI numbers, which are unique to each subscriber’s SIM card. If you collect up these numbers and track where they pop up, you can figure out where and when people are or have been. It’s like leaving your email address at every website you visit.
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That involves special hardware. Now here’s an easier way: with good old Wi-Fi, which any home, shop, airport, mall, or office can install.University of Oxford researchers Piers O’Hanlon and Ravishankar Borgaonkar have shown that it’s possible to harvest IMSI details via Wi-Fi authentication protocols. Most modern mobile operating systems can hand over their owner’s identifying numbers to log into a network, if required, allowing anyone to build a low-cost Wi-Fi-based IMSI catcher. The most obvious protocol is described in RFC 4186 aka EAP-SIM.Android and iOS smartphones and tablets can be tracked this way. Crucially, this stalking can be carried out silently and surreptitiously without requiring any user interaction.O’Hanlon told El Reg that he began his research after noticing that his phone had connected to a protected wireless network during a London Underground journey without any interaction from him. He was subsequently able to confirm that many, but not all, Apple and Android devices are configured to auto-connect to mobile-operator-run Wi-Fi networks.
It works like this: the device tries to connect to the Wi-Fi network, and it is asked for its IMSI number so the wireless operator can check that the subscriber is authorized to access the service. The handset duly hands over the details.By setting up a Mac laptop as a rogue wireless access point, O’Hanlon and Borgaonkar were able to demonstrate the harvesting of IMSI details. Attackers could potentially do the same thing in order to track devices. The approach does not facilitate the interception of communications – unlike a conventional Stingray device that does more than slurp IMSI digits – but is still a privacy concern."[Mobile] operators offload connections onto Wi-Fi and this will happen more in the future," according to O’Hanlon, who is part of a team of academics and industry experts across Europe who are researching 5G security and privacy issues as part of the EU-funded Horizon 2020 project.Rogue access points with the same name as genuine devices are assumed to be part of an operator’s network. Phones will automatically try to connect to it. And the rogue devices can pose as kit from multiple operators.The threat can be mitigated by handsets exchanging pseudonyms and not identifiers – a technology supported by Apple’s iOS 10. Using mobile VPN software will not protect against this kind of attack because private information is leaked during the handshaking.
VPN technology will, however, protect a second attack demonstrated by the two Oxford boffins, where hackers deploy a fake Wi-Fi Calling server in order to extract IMSI identifiers. Not every phone supports Wi-Fi calling, an emerging technology that typically comes into play when a mobile signal is weak.A disassociation attack might be run to boot a subscriber off legitimate networks before getting them to connect to a rogue access point, potentially spilling IMSI subscriber information in the process.Subscription services offer a mechanism to find the phone number from an IMSI identifier for a price. In any case, IMSI offers a way to track devices. End users have no way to change them, short of changing SIM cards.The two Oxford boffins demonstrated a proof-of-concept system that demonstrates their IMSI catcher employing passive and active techniques during a presentation [slides PDF] at the Black Hat EU security conference in London on Thursday. Dig through the annals of Linux journalism and you’ll find a surprising amount of coverage of some pretty obscure distros. Flashy new distros like Elementary OS and Solus garner attention for their slick interfaces, and anything shipping with a MATE desktop gets coverage by simple virtue of using MATE.